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Multi-tenant Database Architecture: All you need to know about it
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See every step of product development with us. Multi-tenant Software as a Service SaaS applications are extremely popular products in Why is that? How might you implement such a project? You could simply copy the entire codebase for each organization.
To update all applications, your web team will have to do the same thing a dozen times! There is a much better solution — you can develop a multi-tenant Software as a Service application.
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Multi-tenancy means that multiple organizations — otherwise called tenants or groups of users — can employ the very same application. With a multi-tenant SaaS app, your web development team will need to deploy and support only one codebase — not multiple applications.
Overall, multi-tenancy greatly simplifies development of a Software as a Service app. Thus, the database layer will require special attention. The other Ruby libraries we should mention are Detectify and Houser. Your development team can use those libraries to build database requests. A multi-tenant application architecture can adopt one of three database architectures. The first option is to use a separate database for each tenant.
The second option is to use the same database for all tenants, but to give each tenant their own schema with individual tables. With either of these two approaches, we recommend using Apartment, the Ruby gem we mentioned previously. Your development team will need to implement this design manually. Each database instance is located on a separate server, so instances are physically separated.Angular 8 Multi Tenant Architecture - Part 1
Do you have to encrypt the data of all tenants? Since tenants have fully isolated databases, we are free to encrypt the data of any tenant or not. The complete isolation of databases also helps us to easily restore data. Given these advantages, using individual databases for tenants seems like a slick solution. As we mentioned before, multi-tenant Software as a Service applications are designed to reduce the cost of server infrastructure.
However, when you provide a dedicated database for each tenant, you have to use a separate server instance to store each database. Tenants may not want to save their data alongside that of other tenants. You can implement this design for a full white-label web application it's understood that a full white-label app has a unique domain name; a partial white-label app would have only a unique subdomain name.
With this design, the app connects to a single database instance.
Three Database Architectures for a Multi-Tenant Rails-Based SaaS App
Each tenant has their own schema a set of tables within the database, but not an entire database. Using separate schemas lets you reduce the complexity of server infrastructure, and thereby the cost. Although initially each new schema has standard tables, tenants are able to customize their schema however they want.Source: Microsoft Azure. With the growing advancements in the field of technology, dependence on the database has also increased by several folds.
Behind every streamlined software system, there is a highly efficient database that yields optimum performance. One cannot deny that there has been a dramatic improvement in the way database architecture was defined to cope up with the growing demand for high performance. At the same time, along with the optimum performance, another aspect which matters is the cost efficiency. Often, the companies do not have big budgets to buy their own individual hardware and they tend to share or rent hardware and software resources as per their requirements.
This is possible with the advent of cloud technologies, where the data of the company gets stored on the cloud. It not only makes the data accessible to different parties located across various locations, but it also saves the costs for the company. To optimise the use of database resources that are shared among different parties, the idea of multi-tenant database architecture emerged as one of the most successful ones.
Let us begin with what a Multi-tenant database architecture is, the factors that help in determining the right architecture and how it works to get an in-depth idea of multi-tenant architecture.
Multi-tenant database architecture is a provision in which a single database is used to store data for different parties by ensuring that the privacy and security of each one of them are duly maintained. This is done by choosing the right tenancy model to map the storage to each of the tenants as per the tenant identifiers, to meet their database requirements.
The database pattern enables you to store more than one tenants in each shard. And thus one can optimize the database by having them shared between multiple tenants.
Source: Microsoft Docs. The multi-tenant database such as Azure SQL Database supports creating multiple schemas within a single database. These schemas are isolated from one another and are not tied with each other, thus they practice independently within the common database. The tenant table that has the tenant identifiers for all the tenants are placed in the shared schema, which is public in nature. When an entry for a new tenant would be created in the tenant table, a new schema for it would be formed.
This way any scoped query for that particular tenant shall be directed to the respective tenant schema. It helps in optimizing the database resource, where a single database is shared to keep separate data for different tenants, where each of them are isolated and do not overlap, without the need of additional scope filters for each of the tenants.
The multi-tenant database is built mainly to address the database needs of the various tenants that share the common database resources, and thus the DBA needs to consider these to deliver an optimized multi-tenant architecture. Here are some of these factors:. This includes several other factors that determine the scalability of the required multi-tenant database architecture such as.
In such a case, where the tenants impact each other, one needs to practice tenant isolation. This is an important factor while designing the multi-tenant database architecture to make it optimal in terms of business and economic interests. Depending upon the per-tenant costs or budget estimates, the costs of the overall database are determined.
The complexities of the development process such as changes to the schema or the changes to queries based on the requirements of the pattern. These complexities play a major role in designing the architecture so as to ensure each of these are well accommodated without hampering the overall performance.
It is important to consider the operational complexities that would surface later during active operations while designing the architecture to make it optimized for high performance.Being a SAAS Software as a Service based application, we believe multi-tenancy and security is one of the primary concern.
We ensure that data from one client is completely isolated from another such that any customization we made to our platform or even done in any other client is not affecting another. It is a concept in which a single instance of software application as APPSeCONNECT serves multiple customers such that customizing one part of solution for a particular customer or tenant does not affect other tenant. Multi-Tenancy is a concept specific to cloud based solution which can be achieved either by giving complete isolation in database or managing the complexity in the application itself.
When database isolation is considered, we can partition data based on tenant id associated with one tenant such that no data particular to a tenant can be accessible to another tenant. While accessing our services, any request made to our server is first validated using the unique tenant id a globally unique identifier and then it performs authorization.
Let us look into more details on how the platform is developed:. In the above image, you can see how our architecture is laid out, where the database layer is built using schemas per instance, and cloud application uses the instance of the same tenant to connect the application.
For our business, isolation of data is important, and we care for it the utmost. To do this, we have introduced database level isolation. To do this, we wanted to use the same technique in which large scale databases are built with. We create few tables which are common for every organization, while we create separate tables for each of the organizations.
Let us consider, how to create database level isolation for an application:. After creating the database, we can create the common tables. Each of the tenant will have their own schema, and all the transactional tables associated with that particular organization. The schema specific to that tenant will be only accessible to the user associated with the schema. There will also be some tables which are associated with [dbo] which connects all other tenants.
The user and the password is stored on the common tables such that only we can keep track of the user details. The above statement will give permission to see the data for a table subscription. Now after the schema is ready, every registration of new tenant will automatically execute a process, which will create all these, preferably using a procedure.
MVC or model-view-controller is an architecture best suited for multi-tenant environment. It is a flexible architecture where all the concerns are separated with one specific problem to solve. The controller acts as a mediator between View and Model. Model is helping to load data for a request while the view is for display purpose. In ASP. NET, Razor syntax is used to create the views, the controller selects the view after authorizing a request and creates a response.
To deal with multi-tenant application in MVC application, you need to handle separate authorization. The above code will find whether the tenant is authorized and depending on the same, it creates a session id and keeps in the server. When using this AuthorizationAttribute in controller, the security checks are automatically performed and every request if not marked as AllowAnonymous will be authorized.OutSystems enables you to the design of applications with data isolation between multiple client organizations — or tenants — for on-premise deployments and for software-as-a-service SaaS scenarios.
These multi-tenant applications are able to serve multiple organizations using the resources of a single software instance, while keeping the data of each separate from the others. This is vastly different from single-tenant applications, which require dedicated resources to serve a single organization. When you are implementing logical segregation of tenants, there are two issues to consider:.
OutSystems follows a multi-tenancy approach of logical segregation. A single application server and database server provide each customer with its own separate set of computing resources. Screens and application business logic applications are shared, but data and end-users are kept apart. End-users use the same URL to access a multi-tenant application, and OutSystems automatically infers their tenants.
Because OutSystems uses the username for this inference, the creation of end-users requires some attention to avoid name clashing. At the database level, when defining one table as multi-tenant, a column with the Tenant ID is added to that table. As for database access, it is automatic and only data belonging to the correct tenant is returned, significantly reducing development costs. Is fully supported and maintained by OutSystems as part of an installation or subscription.
Lower degree of data isolation: data from all tenants are in the same table, which has a column that identifies which tenant that row belongs to. A higher number of rows per table. To overcome this potential performance bottleneck, you should:. Create a table index by tenant ID: OutSystems already creates this index for multi-tenant tables automatically.
The OutSystems strategy of storing data from different tenants in the same entities while ensuring that all queries only access data from a specific tenant is beneficial in terms of maintenance and ownership. However, it does raise concerns about scalability when compared to separate database catalogs for tenant isolation. You can take the following steps to meet increasing database load while ensuring your application responds appropriately:.
Develop the application using a fully multi-tenant methodsince this will give you the flexibility for later changes in the infrastructure.
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Let us say I need to design a database which will host data for multiple companies. Now for security and admin purposes I need to make sure that the data for different companies is properly isolated but I also do not want to start 10 mysql processes for hosting the data for 10 companies on 10 different servers.
What are the best ways to do this with the mysql database. There are several approaches to multi-tenant databases. For discussion, they're usually broken into three categories. MSDN has a good article on the pros and cons of each designand examples of implementations. Microsoft has apparently taken down the pages I referred to, but they are on on archive. Links have been changed to point there. For reference, this is the original link for the second article.
Most obvious choice for me at least would be creating a composite primary key such as:. I restrict access to the data by using a separate database user for each tenant that only has access to views that only show rows that belong to that tenant. Given a specific DB User, you could give a user membership to group s indicating the companies whose data they are permitted to access. I presume you're going to have a Companies table, so just create a one-to-many relationship between Companies and MySQLUsers or something similar.
Have you considered creating a different schema for each company? If you want to make sure that an HW failure doesn't compromise data for more than one company, for example, you have to create different instances and run them on different nodes. If you want to make sure that someone from company A cannot see data that belong to company B you can do that at the application level as per Matthew PK answer, for example.
If you want to be sure that someone who manages to compromise the security and run arbitrary SQL against the DB you need something more robust than that, though. If you want to be able to backup data independently so that you can safely backup Company C on mondays and Company A on sundays and be able to restore just company C then, again, a purely application-based solution won't help.
Learn more. How to design a multi tenant mysql database Ask Question. Asked 9 years ago. Active 9 months ago. Viewed 26k times. Active Oldest Votes. One database per tenant. Shared database, one schema per tenant. Shared database, shared schema. A tenant identifier tenant key associates every row with the right tenant.Instead of deploying an application per client, organizations prefer multitenancy to save infrastructure cost and deployment time.
Multitenant architecture helps to adapt changes for different clients under the hood. In this article I am not going to discuss database design for multitenant applications but I will be focused on achieving separation for different clients. Multitenant architecture helps to adopt changes for different clients under the hood. In this article, I am not going to discuss database design for multitenant applications but I will be focused on achieving separation for different clients.
In this article, I will explain how we can build a multitenant system using asp. In multitenant architecture, the very first step is to identify tenant. In real infrastructure we have multiple ways to identify tenants; e. Since there are many ways to identify tenant and resolve all the dependencies for specific tenants, I am going to use autofac multitenant DI framework which has a great support for multitenancy. I will use custom implementation of ITenantIdentificationStrategy to retrieve tenant id to identify tenant from url as follows.
Our next step will be to add default common implementation for tenants. In multitenant system most of the clients tenants will be using common behaviour but many of them will ask for the different behaviour and business rules as per their business model. Now we will create three different loosely coupled services microservices for above architecture as follows. I am using a proxy implementation for each service and using the same for the different tenant.
If there is no service registered for current tenant or user, the default implementation will work. The purpose of separate service is scalability. In this sample project github linkI am having different projects service and controllers for tenants default, tenant1,tenant2. I have different implementation for default, tenant1 and tenant2, which are having a simple http call to access data fom respective services.
Now as you can see we can have different implementation of services as per tenant. But still, the challenge is to have the same controller. Since Mvc framework registers all the contollers and from the referenced assembly or from the same assembly, while calling controller action it looks up for all the controllers according to route parameters.
In order to invoke an appropriate action for current tenant, I am overriding SelectBestAction method of ActionSelecor class which will returns controllers for tenant in our case.
It provides full qualified named of controller classes but for simplicity, I m looking for the name which has tenant name in it. Default Tenant default service, default controller Tenant 1 has seperate service and controller with additional action method Tenant 2 Default controllerseperate service Note This is a sample project, to get started with multitenancy, and I have not covered all the parts such as authentication and security.
However, you can achieve it by exploring the autofac and aspnet core docs. You can explore source code to play with and customize the same as per your requirements. For this sample project, you will have to run multiple projects together all services along with the main app. View All. Anupam Singh Updated date, Dec 18 A multitenant syetsm. Now we are done. Next Recommended Article.
Getting Started With.In this article, we will see the basic design consideration while designing a Multi-tenant web application in a simple manner. The answer is doubtful. Architecting or designing a Multi-tenant application really needs a huge effort for handling all complexities from data security to UI display.
We can see the design consideration for the presented below data store items. Tenant provision data for vendor e. Configuration details,Tenant profile, and provision details. Scenario to consider Due to some failover a server change is required. How does the cache server get changed without affecting the application? Data Isolation at Tenant level But access with similar queries provides the ability to scale easily.
In the direct DIdependencies can become nested and clumsy to connect them up manually. The transmission of information between a business and another entity in the company's external environment is referred here as external communication. There should be provision to configure extra fields for each tenant without affecting existing application.
Name in their site. White labeling comes for help. Some of the items of customization are listed below. Presented below are some of the common configurable items. Approach: 1 — Different database with similar schema definition Approach: 2 — Shared database with multiple similar schemas Approach: 3- Shared tables in same schema. Encrypt data for security purpose. Design has to support running the system on premise. Cache server can be clustered. Client side session store can be configured to remote cache server.
Clustering can help in failover situation. Can it be scaled out with no code change in application? External Communication The transmission of information between a business and another entity in the company's external environment is referred here as external communication.
Internationalization Personalization Extending the UI fields. Predefined process Choreograph the predefined set of process orchestrate the business process flows according to organization or tenant business needs.
It can have provision to support single factor, multi-factor or crypto-factor It can allow to configure multiple authentication mechanism for a single tenant. To provide access rights to this user using some other Authentication mechanism Federated Claim-based authentication can be used for custom authentication.
Isolation of data from one Tenant Company to the next. Encryption of Data.
Configurable meta data provide a unique user experience and feature set for each tenant.