In pipeline transportationpigging is the practice of using pipeline inspection gauges, devices generally referred do as pigs or scrapers to perform various maintenance operations.
This is done without stopping the flow of the product in the pipeline. These operations include but are not limited to cleaning and inspecting the pipeline.
Pigging has been used for many years to clean large diameter pipelines in the oil industry. Today, however, the use of smaller diameter pigging systems is now increasing in many continuous and batch process plants as plant operators search for increased efficiencies and reduced costs.Catching the pig with El Guapo
Pigging can be used for almost any section of the transfer process between, for example, blending, storage or filling systems. Pigging systems are already installed in industries handling products as diverse as lubricating oils, paints, chemicals, toiletries, cosmetics and foodstuffs.
Pigs are used in lube oil or paint blending to clean the pipes to avoid cross-contamination, and to empty the pipes into the product tanks or sometimes to send a component back to its tank.
Usually pigging is done at the beginning and at the end of each batch, but sometimes it is done in the midst of a batch, such as when producing a premix that will be used as an intermediate component. Pigs are also used in oil and gas pipelines to clean the pipes. There are also "smart pigs" used to inspect pipelines for the purpose of preventing leaks, which can be explosive and dangerous to the environment.
They usually do not interrupt production, though some product can be lost when the pig is extracted. They can also be used to separate different products in a multiproduct pipeline. If the pipeline contains butterfly valvesor reduced port ball valves, the pipeline cannot be pigged.
Full port or full bore ball valves cause no problems because the inside diameter of the ball opening is the same as that of the pipe.
Some early cleaning "pigs" were made from straw bales wrapped in barbed wire  while others used leather. A major advantage for multi-product pipelines of piggable systems is the potential of product savings.
At the end of each product transfer, it is possible to clear out the entire line contents with the pig, either forwards to the receipt point, or backwards to the source tank. There is no requirement for extensive line flushing. Without the need for line flushing, pigging offers the additional advantage of much more rapid and reliable product changeover. Product sampling at the receipt point is faster with pigs, because the interface between products is very clear; the old method of checking at intervals to determine where the product is on-specification takes considerably longer.
Pigging can also be operated totally by a programmable logic controller PLC. Pigging has a significant role to play in reducing the environmental impact of batch operations. Traditionally, the only way that an operator of a batch process could ensure a product was completely cleared from a line was to flush the line with a cleaning agent such as water or a solvent, or even with the next product. The cleaning agent then had to be subjected to effluent treatment or solvent recovery.Pipeline pigging is a concept in pipeline maintenance that involves the use of devices known as pigswhich clean pipelines and are capable of checking pipeline condition.
This process is done without necessarily interfering with the flow of product in the pipe. Selecting the right pipeline pig for a particular application requires extensive experience, something that Inline provides. The primary purpose of pipeline pigs is to make sure that the pipe is clean and free from obstruction. The pig is usually cylindrical or spherical to aid movement and efficient cleaning. As the pig moves through the pipeline, it can remove and possibly detect any build-ups within the pipe which can often lead to reduced performance, increased energy costs and cause corrosion, which could lead to disastrous leaks and cracks in the pipe.
The pipeline pig is inserted into the pipe using a pig trap, which is typically oversized to accommodate the tight fitting pig. A similar pig trap or receiver is located at the end of the pipe to receive the pig once it has traveled the length of the pipeline.
Apache pigPro signalers are a reliable indicator that the pig has passed a certain point on the pipeline. We can help! What is Pipeline Pigging? Connie Quinn-Reese T How Does Pipeline Pigging Work? The Pipeline Pigging Process The pipeline pig is inserted into the pipe using a pig trap, which is typically oversized to accommodate the tight fitting pig.
Have More Questions?
How to Pig a Pipeline – Gas Pipeline Pigging Procedure
Ask Our Experts!Pipeline Pigging Products manufactures internal pipeline cleaners referred to in the trade as "Poly Pigs" in all sizes. With over 60 years of combined experience in manufacturing, research and application, our knowledge of Poly Pigs is unsurpassed in the industry.
Our service division Flowmore Services specializes in pipeline cleaning. We are prepared and equipped to provide assistance on small or large cleaning projects. Pigging Products PPP manufactures and stocks a wide variety of conventional pigs and pigging related equipment. Our factory service teams use the same equipment that we sell to our customers, so you can be assured of a reliable quality product that is right for the job. Click here to visit our video of the pipeline pigging process. Unlike our competitors, Pipeline Pigging Products has a service company.
Flowmore is a critical asset of why we manufacture foam pigs the way we do. With their real-world experience, they're able to provide technical feedback on the foam pigs we've been manufacturing since With our knowledge and insight of the industry and backed by the expertise of our Service Company, we can offer an accurate and personalized quotation to suit your application. SincePipeline Pigging Products has been exclusively manufacturing foam pigs. With all the different types of cleaners on the market today, we've taken the approach of perfecting one of the methods.
With our knowledgeable sales staff and field technicians, we can easily assist in providing a personalized quotation to suit any application. Pipeline Pigging Products manufactures pigs in all pipe sizes, for drying, wiping and scraping applications. Flexible foam construction allows our pigs to negotiate short radius bends, reduced port valves and multi-dimensional pipe from below 2" to over 78" in diameter. From oil and gas to water and wastewater piping, we have a solution for most every pipeline cleaning issue.
We are exhibiting our products at this conference in May for the 28th consecutive year. Service Quote Request Quote. Pipeline Pigging Products. Experience, Research, Know-How.
Over 60 years of combined experience. Manufacturing, Research, Application. Poly Pigs Help Improve. Poly Pigs variety of styles.
Drying, Wiping, Scraping. Consultation Pipeline Pigging Products manufactures internal pipeline cleaners referred to in the trade as "Poly Pigs" in all sizes. Expert Team With over 60 years of combined experience in manufacturing, research and application, our knowledge of Poly Pigs is unsurpassed in the industry.
Service Our service division Flowmore Services specializes in pipeline cleaning. Unsurpassed in.
Foam Pigs. Read More.Pipeline integrity is an essential consideration in downstream oil and gas operations. Over extended periods, pipelines used for transporting oil and gas and other process fluids could become clogged or begin to deteriorate internally due to corrosion.
Therefore, periodic pipeline maintenance is necessary to ensure optimal flow and reliability. Pigs can maintain pipelines without disrupting the flow of fluids through them. While actual pipeline pigging procedures vary, a pigging system typically consists of the pig, launcher, and receiver.
The pig is a cylindrical or spherical device propelled through a pipeline by the force of the fluid in motion or pulled with a string. Nowadays, a wide range of materials can be used to make pigs including Polyurethane, Rubber, and Steel. As noted above, pigs serve more than one function in oil and gas operations. Below are some common types of pipeline pigging devices available today:. When it comes to pigging oil and gas pipelines, every application is unique.
Therefore, it is critical to know which pig type is suitable for a particular purpose. Utility pigs are used to remove debris, dirt, and other unwanted materials that could obstruct the flow of fluids through oil and gas pipelines.
They are also used to separate products and for dewatering operations. Utility pigs travel the length of the line with the force of the moving fluid or electrically. Common utility pig types are foam pigs, spherical pigs, and mandrel pigs. As the name implies, these pigs are used strictly for oil pipeline inspection. Also known as plugs, specialty pigs can be used to isolate sections within a pipeline for remediation purposes.
Specialty pigs come in a wide range of sizes and materials for various pipeline applications. They can be used alongside other pig types for effective cleaning, dewatering, and fluid separation in pipelines and also reduce wear and tear of primary pig components. Pipelines that contain internal valves cannot be maintained using conventional process pigging systems because these obstructions could lead to a stuck pig.
In such cases, gel pigs can get the job done. Below are a series of steps that form standard pigging procedures. The first step to successfully pig an oil and gas pipeline is to determine what type of operation the pig is to perform. This will help you determine the most suitable pig type for the job. The basic pigging procedure requires a launcher and a receiver to clean a pipeline. The pig is inserted into the pig launcher which is slightly larger in diameter than the pipeline.
The launcher is then closed and the force of fluid moving through the line propels it along the entire length of the pipe, clearing debris or material build-up within the pipeline.
At the opposite end of the pipeline is a receiver device or pig trap which collects the pig before the debris is removed. During pigging pressure control is essential to avoid bodily injury. NB: Pigging must be done by competent or experienced pipeline pigging contractors or professionals to mitigate the inherent safety risks. To properly pig a pipeline and to ensure safe operation, you need the services of a seasoned pipeline pigging contractor. NiGen International has a team of highly-trained staff knowledgeable in various pipeline pigging procedures, applications, and devices.
For more information on our Pipeline Servicesplease request a quote online or call NiGen at How to Pig a Pipeline — Gas Pipeline Pigging Procedure Pipeline integrity is an essential consideration in downstream oil and gas operations.
What Is Pipeline Pigging? Components of a Pipeline Pigging System While actual pipeline pigging procedures vary, a pigging system typically consists of the pig, launcher, and receiver. Below are some common types of pipeline pigging devices available today: Utility Pigs Inspection Pigs Specialty Pigs Gel Pigs Choosing your Pig When it comes to pigging oil and gas pipelines, every application is unique.Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment.
SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. More information. Pigs may be used in hydrostatic testing and pipeline drying, internal cleaning, internal coating, liquid management, batching, and inspection.
Pigs are used during hydrostatic testing operations to allow the pipeline to be filled with water, or other test medium, without entrapping air. The pig is inserted ahead of the fill point, and water is pumped behind the pig to keep the pipe full of water and force air out ahead of the pig. Pigs are then used to remove the test waters and to dry the pipeline. Operations may conduct pigging on a regular basis to clean solids, scale, wax buildup paraffinand other debris from the pipe wall to keep the pipeline flow efficiency high.
In addition to general cleaning, natural-gas pipelines use pigs to manage liquid accumulation and keep the pipe free of liquids. Water and natural-gas liquids can condense out of the gas stream as it cools and contacts the pipe wall and pocket in low places, which affects flow efficiency and can lead to enhanced corrosion. Product pipelines may simultaneously transport gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel oils, and other products, which are kept separated by batching pigs.
Crude-oil pipelines are sometimes pigged to keep water and solids from accumulating in low spots and creating corrosion cells. Multiphase pipelines may have to be pigged frequently to limit liquid holdup and minimize the slug volumes of liquid which can be generated by the system. Pigs may be used to apply internal pipe coatings, such as epoxy coating materials, in operating pipelines. Pigs may also be used with corrosion inhibitors to distribute and coat the entire internal wetted perimeter.
Pigs are being used more frequently as inspection tools. Gauging or sizing pigs are typically run following the completion of new construction or line repair to determine if there are any internal obstructions, bends, or buckles in the pipe. Pigs can also be equipped with cameras to allow viewing of the pipe internals. The accuracy of location and measurement of anomalies by the intelligent pigs has continued to improve. Initially, the electronics and power systems were so large that intelligent pigs could be used only in lines 30 in.
The continued sophistication and miniaturization of the electronic systems used in the intelligent pigs has allowed the development of smaller pigs that can be used in small-diameter pipelines. Newly enacted DOT pipeline-integrity regulations and rules acknowledge the effectiveness of the intelligent pigs and incorporate their use in the pipeline-integrity testing process. Pigging facilities and considerations should be incorporated into the pipeline system design.
Basic pigging facilities require a device to launch the pig into the pipeline and a receiver system to retrieve the pig as shown in Fig.General Pipeline pigs and spheres are used for a variety of purposes in both liquids and natural gas pipelines. Pigs and spheres are forced through the pipeline by the pressure of the flowing fluid. A pig usually consists of a steel body with rubber or plastic cups attached to seal against the inside of the pipeline and to allow pressure to move the pig along the pipeline.
Different types of brushes and scrapers can be attached to the body of the pig for cleaning or to perform other functions.
Figure 4. Differential pressure is required to move a pig or sphere through the pipeline. The force required depends on elevation changes in the pipeline, friction between the pig and the pipe wall and the amount of lubrication available in the line. A dry gas pipeline provides less lubrication tan a crude oil pipeline, for example. Cups are designed to seal against the wall by making them larger than the inside diameter of the pipe.
As the cups become worn, the amount of blow-by fluid by-passing the pigs increases because the seal is not as effective. In the case of spheres, a certain amount of over-inflation is required to provide a seal. In two-phase pipelines, spheres are sometimes under-inflated to allow some blow-by to lower the density of the fluid ahead of the sphere. Pigs and spheres travel at about the same velocity as the fluid in the pipeline and travel speed is relatively constant.
Pigging Operations Pigs are used in all types of pipelines to increase efficiency and avoid problems at pump or compressor stations that could result from the presence of unwanted materials. Brushes and scrapers on a cleaning pig remove dirt and scale from the pipeline walls. Brush and scraper pigs feature longitudinal boles, which pass through the body of the pig. The holes allow a flow of fluid through the pig to prevent the build-up of wax or debris in front of the pig.
A pig can remove very large amounts of debris if it is run over a long distance. For example, assume a pig is run in a 24 in. After miles, a plug about 1, ft long would form. For this reason, pipelines are operated to very definite pigging programmes. Pipelines are often pigged first during testing following construction.
Most pipelines are tested with water hydrostatic testing either in sections or over the entire length. A foam pig or pigs is normally sent ahead of the water when filling the test section to prevent mixing the test water with air in the line. Internallycoated pipelines are often flushed with water ahead of a pig to prevent debris from being dragged along the inside surface, damaging the coating.
After testing, the water is usually displaced with the fluid to be transported in the pipeline. A pig is run between the two fluids to separate them. Additional pigs may also be run to ensure that as much moisture as possible is removed from the line.
Launching And Receiving Equipment is required to introduce the pig into the pipeline and to retrieve the pig at the end of the segment being pigged. A launcher is required at the upstream of the section and a receiver at the down-stream end.
The design of pig launchers, pig traps and related equipment is done in accordance with standards developed by several organizations. Traps for brush pigs, squeegees and foam pigs include a barrel, short pup joint, a trap valve, a side valve and a bypass line. The barrel holds the pig for loading and unloading and is equipped with a quick-opening closure or blind flange. A barrel diameter larger than the diameter of the pipeline served is required in order to allow the Pig to be successfully launched or retrieved.
Barrel length depends on operating procedures, service and available space. Sphere launchers are often designed for multiple sphere launching and recovery duties and the barrels for sphere launchers are typically longer than those for other types of pigs. The operator can load these magazines with several spheres that can be launched automatically.
This approach is often used in two-phase pipelines where the barrels may be designed to accommodate over lo spheres.Pigging in pipeline is a process in pipeline maintenance that involves the use of devices known as pigs, which clean pipelines and are capable of checking pipeline condition without necessarily stopping or interfering with the flow of product in the pipeline. The primary purpose of pipeline pigs is to make sure that the pipe is clean and free from obstruction.
The pig is usually cylindrical or spherical to aid movement and efficient cleaning. As the pig moves through the pipeline, it can possibly detect and remove any build-ups within the pipe which can often lead to reduced performance, increased energy costs and cause corrosion, which could lead to disastrous leaks and cracks in the pipeline.
Pigging in pipeline starts with installation of a pig trap in the pipeline that includes a pig launcher and a pig receiver. Pig trap is typically an over-sized section in the pipeline, reducing to the normal diameter, to accommodate the tight-fitting pig. Without interrupting the flow, pig is inserted into the pipeline using the pig trap. As pig travel along the pipeline, there are a number functions the pig can do, from clearing the line to inspecting the interior.
A similar pig trap is located at the end of the pipe to receive the pig once it has traveled the required length of the pipeline. In the pipeline, pig is either pushed by the line fluid flow pressure or pulled through by a cable. The purpose of pipeline pigging has evolved with the development of technologies ans thus the types of pigs.
There are variety of types of pigs used today, including:. Debris can be accumulated during pipeline construction and during operating phase.
Types of utility pigs include mandrel pigs, foam pigs, solid cast pigs and spherical pigs. Inspection pigs, also known as smart pigs, gather information about the pipeline from within. Inspection pigs use two methods to gather information about the interior condition of the pipeline:. Specialty pigs are used to isolate a section of the pipeline for maintenance work to be performed. The pig keeps the pipeline pressure in the line by stopping up the pipeline on either side of where the remedial work is being done.
Gel pigs a combination of gelled liquids can be used in conjunction with conventional pigs or by themselves. Pumped through the pipeline, there are a number of uses for gel pigs, including product separation, debris removal, hydrostatic testing, condensate removal, as well as removing a stuck pig.
Tags: pigging. Would have been great if you included pictures and diagrams on a pig launcher and a pig receiver. Working Principle of Pigging Pigging in pipeline starts with installation of a pig trap in the pipeline that includes a pig launcher and a pig receiver.
In natural-gas pipelines, pigs are used to manage liquid accumulation and keep the pipeline free of liquids. Water and natural-gas liquids can condense out of the gas stream as it cools, which affects flow efficiency and can lead to enhanced corrosion.
Pigs are used to empty the pipelines into the product tanks. Pigs also known as smart pigs or inspection pigs are used to inspect pipelines for detecting leaks and buildups, which could be explosive and dangerous to the environment.